In the conflicts that have continued in Afghanistan since the 1970s, the domestic socioeconomic infrastructure there has been destroyed, displacing many people. In 2001, the Taliban administration was defeated and a new administration established, but Afghanistan was ranked as 172 out of 187 countries on the UNDP's 2011 Human Development Index, and is one of the world's poorest countries. There is an overwhelming lack of basic infrastructure such as electricity, transportation, water and sewer facilities. Taking into account the lack of a stable security situation in Afghanistan, JICA is taking maximum safety measures in the development of projects to improve economic growth, including job creation, and contribute to the stability of living for residents. The greatest focus of JICA's support to Afghanistan is in creating infrastructure, particularly in the metropolitan area of the capital Kabul, and agricultural and rural development. Over a period of five years, 500 long-term participants will be welcomed into various Japanese universities under PEACE, a project that was started as a bridge to the future based on a core of human resources. With close relations to international NGOs such as the Aga Khan Foundation, JICA is proceeding with pilot projects to expand aid.