This report covers program results and the status of activities for the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in fiscal 2005.
Under the three pillars-field based management, human security, and effectiveness, efficiency and speed-the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has pushed forward reforms with respect to the nature of projects and organizations since its re-launch as an independent administrative institution in October 2003. This feature reports on the progress in JICA reforms up to fiscal 2005 and introduces JICA’s tasks in response to another Japan ODA reform scheduled for fiscal 2008.
What has been changed by the enhancement of field operations, the first phase of the reform plan that started in fiscal 2004? The outcomes of the two-year efforts are reported in terms of the following four aspects.
JICA’s basic policies for integration with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) are described.
A comprehensive report on ODA and JICA program results in fiscal 2005 (calendar year 2005 for ODA) is provided. More detailed JICA results can be found in Part IV of this report or on the attached Statistical Appendix CD-ROM.
Part II divides the countries of the world into 10 regions and describes JICA’s cooperation activities for each region. It reports on the basic principles of JICA’s assistance to each region, gives overviews of the regions, and summarizes the priority issues and measures in JICA programs. It also introduces representative projects in each region, allowing the reader to overview specific activities.
JICA identifies three priority issues in providing cooperation for ASEAN, whose integration is being advanced: (1) support for regional integration (strengthening international competitiveness, correcting inter-regional disparities); (2) poverty reduction effort based on the perspective of "Human Security"; and (3) response to cross-border issues (terrorism, piracy, etc.)
JICA is working to understand China’s detailed aid needs based on China’s five-year plan announced in March 2006 and implementing cooperation with a focus on four priorities: (1) cooperation towards resolving environmental and other global issues; (2) assistance for open and reform policy; (3) promotion of mutual understanding; and (4) assistance for poverty alleviation.
Cooperation for Mongolia is provided under four pillars: (1) support for institution-building and human resources development necessary for promoting a market economy; (2) support for rural development; (3) support for environmental conservation; and (4) support for the development of infrastructure.
It has been over a dozen years since respective countries in the region achieved independence, and the speed and direction of their development vary. In view of Japan’s new cooperative framework, that is to say a "Central Asia plus Japan" dialogue, JICA provides cooperation for rebuilding social sectors while paying attention to the level of development in each country.
JICA’s cooperation strategy in Southwest Asia, which accounts for 40% of the world’s poor population, positions poverty reduction as its top priority, and adopts two-sided approaches: improving basic living standards and stable economic development. In addition, long-term support will be given for peacebuilding in Sri Lanka, for the Great Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster in Sri Lanka and Maldives, and for the disaster caused by the Northern Pakistan Earthquake that occurred in 2005.
JICA places the utmost priority on peacebuilding and reconstruction assistance for Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine as the key to regional stability in the Middle East. At the same time, in the fields of water resource management, industrial promotion, developing technicians, and environment, all of which are issues common to the region, JICA implements cooperation in line with the needs in each country.
Targeting poverty reduction as the ultimate goal in African development, JICA’s cooperation is provided in line with five policies: (1) contribution to MDGs; (2) enhancement of support for the vulnerable groups and communities; (3) timely reconstruction assistance in post-conflict countries; (4) follow up of TICAD III and continued support with the New Partnership of Africa’s Development (NEPAD); and (5) support for the policy process of each African country and strengthening aid coordination through the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP),etc.
While utilizing regional cooperation targeting a group of countries, South-South cooperation among countries in the region, and aid coordination and collaboration with other donor countries, in order to address poverty reduction which is the priority issue in the region, JICA prioritizes cooperation in several areas: (1) emphasis on expansion of basic education; (2) health and hygiene; (3) agricultural and rural development; (4) industrial development and development of socioeconomic infrastructures; (5) environmental conservation; (6) disaster prevention (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, etc.); and (7) citizens security.
In this region, movements toward regional cooperation and economic integration are prominent. In order to correct disparities between and within countries, and to realize sustainable development, JICA addresses six priority issues: (1) correction of disparities and poverty reduction; (2) sustainable economic growth; (3) global issues; (4) peacebuilding and support for the socially vulnerable groups; (5) promotion of regionwide cooperation and South-South cooperation; and (6) active collaboration with Nikkei (Japanese descendant) communities.
With the aim of developing societies that are independent of the former suzerain states, in order to expand basic social services and promote economic growth, developing human resources and building socioeconomic infrastructure are emphasized. As common issues in the region, cross-border cooperation is being provided to address environmental problems represented by coral reef destruction and solid waste disposal.
Since 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe acceded to the EU in May 2004, JICA has shifted its aid focus to peace consolidation and economic development in the Western Balkans (former Yugoslavia region). Based on the discussion in the Ministerial Conference on Peace Consolidation and Economic Development of the Western Balkans held in Japan in 2004, JICA’s aid will underline these two issues.
Part III introduces JICA programs, mainly approaches to each development issue.
In addition to social development, human development, global environment, rural development, and economic development, this year’s report takes up the latest JICA approach to MDGs.
JICA’s representative cooperation programs are introduced.
Evaluation and Follow-up, which are critical to efficient and effective project implementation, are described.
Part IV provides more details on fiscal 2005 JICA’s programs, which were introduced in Part I, by region, sector, and country. Even more detailed results can be seen on the Statistical Appendix CD-ROM.
JICA’s history, organization, budgets, financial statements, and domestic and overseas offices are provided.