This report covers program results and the status of activities for the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in fiscal 2006.
Recently, we have been facing more issues that require aid methods different from conventional bilateral cooperation. This year’s feature section explains how JICA addresses these issues and reports on how JICA has changed since its transformation into an independent administrative institution, ranging from reforms to preparation for its integration with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) scheduled for 2008.
At the TICAD IV that will be held at Japan’s initiative in May 2008, discussions will be held on future measures of support for Africa in the contexts of acceleration of growth, human security, and environment and climate change. JICA’s policies for supporting Africa in these areas are introduced.
This section provides (1) a review of JICA’s efforts during the period of the first mid-term objectives and plan (from the transformation into independent administrative institution until the end of March 2007), (2) the achievements of the reforms implemented from fiscal 2004 to 2006, and (3) the preparations for integration with the JBIC scheduled for October 2008.
A comprehensive report on ODA and JICA program results in fiscal 2006 (calendar year 2006 for ODA) is provided. More detailed JICA results can be found in Part IV of this report or on the attached Statistical Appendix CD-ROM.
Part II divides the countries of the world into 10 regions and describes JICA’s cooperation activities for each region. It reports on the basic principles of JICA’s assistance to each region, gives overviews of the regions, and summarizes the priority issues and measures in JICA programs. It also introduces representative projects in each region, allowing the reader to overview specific activities.
As regional economies grow in ASEAN where regional integration is advancing, correction of disparities between the six original members and the four new members of ASEAN are important tasks. Through various projects, JICA’s technical cooperation will continue to focus on the development of individual countries as well as the whole region.
Based on China’s five-year plan announced in March 2006, JICA implements cooperation with a focus on four priorities: (1) cooperation towards resolving environmental and other global issues; (2) assistance for open and reform policy; (3) promotion of mutual understanding; and (4) assistance for poverty alleviation.
Cooperation for Mongolia is provided under four pillars: (1) support for institution-building and human resources development necessary for promoting a market economy; (2) support for rural development; (3) support for environmental protection; and (4) support for the development of infrastructure.
It has been over 15 years since respective countries in the region achieved independence, and the speed and direction of their development vary. Accordingly, in line with the development levels of each country, JICA is providing support for transition to a market economy and democratization, human resources development, infrastructure development, and rebuilding social sectors. JICA is also carrying out activities to promote industrial development and regional cooperation, which are pillars of the “Central Asia plus Japan” dialogue, a cooperation framework.
JICA’s cooperation focuses on poverty reduction and economic development as pillars of aid for Southwest Asia, which accounts for 40% of the world’s poor population. Support for peacebuilding is provided, mainly in Nepal and Sri Lanka where conflicts have almost come to an end, medium- and long-term support for reconstruction continues in response to the damage caused by the Northern Pakistan Earthquake that occurred in 2005.
JICA places the utmost priority on peacebuilding and reconstruction assistance for Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine as the key to regional stability in the Middle East. At the same time, in the fields of water resource management, industrial promotion, human resources development, and environment protection, all of which are issues common to the region, JICA implements cooperation including volunteer programs in line with the needs in each country.
Support for Africa has been provided mainly for social development targeting the socially vulnerable and communities, with a focus on the perspective of human security. In addition, JICA has highlighted cooperation that contributes to the three pillars announced at TICAD III in 2003 in support for Africa, namely, human-centered development, poverty reduction through economic development, and consolidation of peace, as well as cooperation in line with accelerated growth, a theme for TICAD IV scheduled for 2008.
Given that the region consists of adjoining small countries with common characteristics, through various methods such as regionwide cooperation targeting a set of countries, South-South cooperation in the region, coordination and collaboration with organizations related to regional integration, international organizations, and other donor countries, JICA prioritizes cooperation in the following areas: (1) education, (2) health, (3) agricultural and rural development, (4) industrial development and development of socioeconomic infrastructures, (5) environmental conservation, (6) disaster prevention, (7) citizen security.
In South America, which sees movements toward regional cooperation and economic integration becoming prominent, the poverty group is expanding in spite of steady economic growth, contributing to political and economic instability, deterioration of public security, and environmental issues. Therefore, from the perspective of human security, JICA implements cooperation with focus on the following priority issues: (1) poverty reduction and disparity correction, (2) cooperation for sustainable economic growth, (3) addressing global issues, (4) peacebuilding and support for the socially vulnerable, (5) promotion of partnership, regionwide cooperation, and South-South cooperation, (6) collaboration with Nikkei (Japanese descendant) communities.
While providing cooperation with an emphasis on economic self-reliance and sustainable development in Oceania, which consists of small island countries, JICA works to formulate projects that have a large impact throughout the region and promote collaboration with other aid agencies. In this regard, cooperation for promoting tourism and agriculture and fishery, expanding basic social services, including education and health, and conserving environment is provided.
JICA’s aid will terminate in two years in the countries that graduated from ODA recipient country status when the DAC list was revised in January 2006. At the same time, JICA is also supporting these countries in their ambitions to become donors in the future. On the other hand, based on the discussion in the Ministerial Conference on Peace Consolidation and Economic Development of the Western Balkans in 2004, JICA will provide cooperation that sets the consolidation of peace and the development of the private sector as priority fields.
Part III introduces JICA programs, mainly approaches to each development issue.
JICA’s approaches to social development, human development, global environment, rural development, and economic development as well as MDGs are introduced.
JICA’s representative cooperation programs are introduced.
Evaluation and Follow-up, which are critical to efficient and effective project implementation, are described.
Part IV provides more details on fiscal 2006 JICA’s programs, which were introduced in Part I, by region, sector, and country. Even more detailed results can be seen on the Statistical Appendix CD-ROM.
JICA’s history, organization, budgets, financial statements, and domestic and overseas offices are provided.