JICA Ogata Research Institute



Long-term Consequences of Civil War in Tajikistan: The Gendered Impact on Education and Labor Market Outcomes

Tajikistan experienced a violent internal conflict between 1992 and 1997. This study examines the long-term consequences of civil war in Tajikistan on education and labor market outcomes twenty years after the end of the civil war. We compare individuals who should have completed their mandatory schooling before the war and individuals who were of school age during the war with a wide variety of geographical exposures to the war. We confirm a negative and significant effect on completing basic education for females exposed to the war during their school ages. Moreover, we see significant adverse effects on work status for receiving cash wages for females exposed to armed conflicts in their basic education ages.

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