JICA Ogata Research Institute


Working Papers

No.103 The Effect of Disability and Gender on Returns to the Investment in Education: A Case from Metro Manilla of the Philippines

In this paper, we investigate the effect of gender on returns to the investment in education for men and women with disabilities in Metro Manila of the Philippines. Using the dataset of persons with hearing, physical and visual impairments, we employ three methodological strategies on earning functions, including continuous and discontinuous functions and quantile regression to reveal the effects of gender within disabilities. Our estimation suggests that women with disabilities face several disadvantages in the labor markets of the Philippines where gender equality in general is observed for women without disabilities. After controlling for a sample selection to account for endogenous labor participation, as well as endogeneity of schooling decisions, the estimated rate of returns to education is very high, ranging from 24.9 to 38.4%. However, when classifying each disability dummy variable for each gender, the effect of double disadvantage (gender and disability) is observable. Additionally, checking the possibility of nonlinear schooling returns, we also find that the effect of disability for women is more severe than for their male counterparts. From these findings, we cannot reject the possibility that obtaining a diploma serves signaling as their ability level for women with disabilities.

Keywords: disability, gender, returns to education, labor market participation, earning functions, Philippines

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