The rapid increasing of tourist and businessman of the nearby town of Siem Reap has resulted in a severe shortage of water for both residential and business use. Since public water supply can only cover 35 percent of total demand, people came to pump their water from underground by themselves. However, if the groundwater goes down, people will have a problem with the stability in the sand layer under the temple, so the temples can collapse.
The agreement for the US$93.24 million loan was signed between JICA and Cambodian government on March 29, 2010, and new water supply system was also founded by Japan. The new system will pump 60,000 cubic meters of water, from the Tonle Sap Lake, and transport it 20 kilometers into Siem Reap per day.
The Cambodian Government has done much to establish policies and institutions to enhance the status of women as one of Cambodia's Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs). The Ministry of Women's Affairs (MoWA) and JICA newly launched "Gender Mainstreaming Project (Phase 2)" to develop gender equality and empowered women.