1. Outline of the Project
Nakawa Vocational Training Institute Project in Uganda (NAVTI)
Project-type Technical Cooperation
Division in charge:
Second Development Study Division, Social Development Study Department
1,515 Million Yen
Period of Cooperation
20 May 1997 - 19 May 2002
Partner Country's Implementing Organization:
Nakawa Vocational Training Institute (Nakawa VTI), Ministry of Education and Sports
Supporting Organization in Japan:
Employment and Human Resources Development Organization of Japan, Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry
1-1 Background of the Project
Nakawa VTI was established to implement training for upgrading the necessary techniques of engineers in order to develop the small and medium size enterprises in Uganda. From 1968 to 1974 JICA implemented Project-type Technical Cooperation entitled "Uganda Vocational Training Center". However, during the turmoil after the Amin administration, Nakawa VTI faced problems such as aging facilities and equipment. Since establishment of the Musebeni administration, Uganda has been working to reconstruct the state based on its "Rehabilitation and Development Plan (1993/94 - 1995/1996)". However, the shortage of skilled workers has been a serious problem hindering the industrial and economic development in Uganda. The government of Uganda has made the development of human resources its top priority and conducted education reform and vocational training to address employment problems. Based on these activities, in May 1994, the government of Uganda requested another Project-type Technical Cooperation from Japan directed at the Nakawa Vocational Training Institute.
1-2 Project Overview
The Project enhances the skills of instructors in seven fields (Machining, electricity, welding, sheet metal, motor vehicles, electronics, and carpentry) and provides guidance and advice for course content and management. The Project is aimed at implementation of a basic training course for young unskilled craftsmen/women in areas of key demand as well as upgrading existing apprenticeship and training courses. (Employed engineers undergo six weeks of training every four years and upon completion of the training, a certificate of craftsmanship is presented.)
(1) Overall Goal
Demands for skilled craftsmen/women needed by industries are satisfied.
(2) Project Purpose
Skilled craftsmen/women needed by industries is fostered through the basic, upgrading and apprenticeship training courses in the seven fields (Machining, electricity, welding, sheet metal, motor vehicle, motor vehicle, electronics, carpentry)
1) Necessary facilities, equipment and personnel are set up in the seven fields.
2. Evaluation Team
Members of Evaluation Team
Team Leader: Yoshiaki UMIMAE, Deputy Director of Overseas Cooperation Division, Human Resources Development Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
Period of Evaluation
28 October 2001 - 11 November 2001
Type of Evaluation:
3. Results of Evaluation
3-1 Summary of Evaluation Results
The relevance is high. The Project is in line with the needs of the industrial sector of Uganda and the important issues of Japanese official development assistance to Uganda, even though the educational training policy in Uganda now emphasizes primary education.
Since Nakawa VTI had graduates only twice in March 2000 and 2001, respectively, it is too early to measure the performance of graduates. However, 84.9 percent of the March 2000 graduates and 78.5 percent of the March 2001 graduates of Nakawa VTI passed the Trade Test. The pass ratio of Nakawa VTI graduates was better than that of the other vocational training center. Moreover, the application/enrollment rate of Nakawa VTI has been high. Results of an interview survey show that enterprises highly evaluate upgrading training. Therefore, the evaluation team confirmed that Nakawa VTI graduates possess outstanding skills and that Nakawa VTI contributes to human resources development in the industrial sector of Uganda.
The delay in provision of equipment in three fields, electricity, woodworking and sheet metal, affected efficiency. The implementation of basic training in these fields was behind schedule and started a year late. However Nakawa VTI has almost the same number of training subjects, experts and trainees as the Lugogo Vocational Training Institute, supported by GTZ. Therefore, the efficiency is recognized relatively high.
Basic training and upgrading training contributed to human resources development, reflecting the needs of enterprises, which emphasized practical skills. Joint training with other institutions has been conducted. For example, Nakawa VTC was in charge of technical training as part of a course for the self-employed workers of communities, conducted by UNIDO (United Nations Industrial and development Organization). In return, UNIDO trained the counterparts of Nakawa VTI in business management. Moreover, Nakawa VTC implemented Trainer's training for trainers from other vocational training institutions. Judging from the above, some positive impact has been observed.
Looking at the financial aspect of Uganda, the budget was tight and the budget for education was cut by 30 percent. Therefore, the situation should be monitored continuously. On the other hand, from the aspect of human resources, the Government of Uganda has made positive efforts, such as the Ministry of Education and Sports distribution of personal costs for provisional employees and a plan to increase the number of instructors and treat them as Government officials. Concerning counterparts, 68 percent of the counterparts assigned have remained in Nakawa VTI, and the average age range is the early thirties. Therefore, they are expected to work actively at Nakawa VTC on a continuous basis. As regards the technical aspects, technical transfer was delayed in the woodworking field, where the counterparts were frequently changed. Also, technical transfer was insufficient in the fields of electricity and motor vehicles, in which the curriculum required a review to ensure applicability to market demand and changes in technology. Consequently, further technical assistance from Japan is desired in some areas. Judging from the above, although there is not enough sustainability at the moment, some efforts toward sustainability can be observed on the Uganda side.
3-2 Factors that promoted realization of effects
(1) Factors concerning Planning
The content of the training in each field met the need of the Uganda industrial sector. Furthermore, the Nakawa VTI coordinated OJT for second grade students at a company and tried to upgrade the techniques of the students. As a result, the Nakawa VTI could respond to industry demand for skilled workers with adaptable potential.
(2) Factors concerning the Implementation Process
1) At the Nakawa VTI, income generation activities (activities which provide money by fixing or producing products for customers) were implemented. The income from these activities was utilized as operational costs at Nakawa VTI, compensating for the delayed governmental budget.
3-3 Factors that impeded realization of effects
(1) Factors concerning Planning
After Mid-term evaluation, the plan of Apprenticeship training was changed and would be implemented on request by the Directorate of Industrial Training (DIT). However, as there was no request from DIT, apprenticeship training has not implemented, lowering the rate of accomplishment.
(2) Factors concerning the Implementation Process
The provision of equipment in three fields, electricity, woodworking and sheet metal, was delayed. Basic training in these fields started a year late, which adversely affected project efficiency.
The Project has effectively and efficiently contributed to the needs of the government of Uganda and the industrial sector. Although the vocational training policy of the Ministry of Education and Sports is still at the stage of making out a draft, the Nakawa VTI should discuss the content of the activities in line with the policy of Uganda. The industrial sector has a tremendous need for vocational training for 0-level holders (persons with a secondary education: seven years of primary education, four years of secondary education), however there are only three vocational training institutes run by the government. Therefore, the Nakawa VTI still plays the important role of satisfying the requirements. From the technical point of view, it is desired that Japan continue to revise the curriculum to meet the recent needs of Uganda in the woodworking field where technical transfer has been delayed. It is also desirable for Japan to provide follow-ups in electricity and motor vehicle fields as well as to continue cooperation concerning the upgrading training course and to respond to needs in other technical matters, considering efficiency.
(1) The Uganda side should continuously distribute an adequate budget to the Nakawa VTI.
(2) The Nakawa VTI should secure a budget for maintenance, make a list of spare parts suppliers, and continuously and properly maintain equipment.
(3) It is necessary to conduct a policy study to assess the needs of the market, and social and industrial needs by either interviewing graduates or the use of a questionnaire.
(4) Technical cooperation is necessary in the fields of electricity, motor vehicles, woodworking, upgrading training and other technical areas.
3-6 Lessons Learned
(1) In implementing common training subjects, more discussions and frequent and flexible exchange of opinions are required for effective project implementation.
(2) The income generation activities should be effective in the case of a shortage of budget allocation to the project so far as it is useful to the training and is conducted as a part of the training.
(3) In case a delayed input is forecasted, the plan of operation should be readjusted.
(4) The committee activities are an effective way to obtain the opinions of each section
(5) Sharing information by way of the intranet system is useful for smooth communication among the personnel concerned and to ensure the transparency of the income generating activities.
3-7 Follow-up Situation
Based on the above recommendations, follow-up cooperation has been conducted for two years from 20 May 2002 to 19 May 2004.