November 29, 2012
The 18th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP18) is being held from November 26 to December 7 in Doha, Qatar. During this milestone meeting, the rules for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, which mandated reductions on the emission of greenhouse gases from advanced countries, will be established because the protocol is set to expire at the end of this year. Moreover, discussion on the creation of a new framework involving the United States, China, India, and other major emitting countries that are not required to make reductions under the current system, as well as all other countries, is intended to be completed by 2015, while negotiation to implement a new framework will be advanced by 2020.
Environmental degradation and destruction on a global scale have become a major factor to jeopardize the basis of human livelihood. In particular, droughts or floods are threatening human lives due to the impact of climate change. The poor in both the rural and urban areas of developing countries, who live in regions vulnerable to natural disasters, are likely to be susceptible to a negative impact.
JICA-RI has been working on the research on approaches for promoting mitigation measures in developing countries and formulating adaptation measures for climate change, drawing on on-site experiences and data, as well as incorporating the accumulated knowledge and methods in the natural science.
＜Research Projects on Climate Change＞
1) Tackling Risks which Climate Change Brings Down
“Empirical Study on Weather Risk Coping Strategy for Households in Rural Kenya”
Weather influences the majority of the poor engaging in agriculture of developing countries as a negative factor. In order to tackle this problem, irrigation, crop diversification, and mutual aid system have been introduced. However, repeated droughts since 2007 reduced the world’s agricultural output, posing a threat especially to the lives of the poor. In view of the current situation, an interest in insurance as a means of risk countermeasure has been growing worldwide. This research examines the case of Kenya, considering the possibility to introduce weather index insurance, with a plan to release the results in 2013.
2) Measures to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change in Developing Countries
“Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change in Developing Countries”
“Research on the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Effect”
Of the two parts in this research on measures for adaptation and mitigation of climate change, the research on adaptation measures forecasts the impact of climate change in Asian and African countries. This research aims to set out policies for local communities to cope with these effects, as well as to lead the direction of aid from advanced countries and international organizations. The research on mitigation measures, on the other hand, identifies the specific approaches necessary for implementing policies toward reducing carbon emissions in Asian region where those countries continue to develop. This research also assesses the mitigation effects of the past development projects, together with examining aid direction for donors. The outcomes of the research on the two areas are compiled into two books, while the research on the effects of greenhouse gas reduction through JICA projects is in preparation as a Working Paper.
“Impacts of Climate Change upon Asian Coastal Areas”
JICA-RI has been conducting research on the impact of climate change on major coastal cities in Asia, in collaboration with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. The Institute, taking a part of a case study on the Manila metropolitan area, compiled its research outcomes. A combining report from these three organizations on the research results covering—the Manila metropolitan area, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City, and others—has been released by the World Bank.
＜Publications on Climate Change＞
Climate Change Mitigation and International Development Cooperation
Climate Change Adaptation and International Development： Making Development Cooperation More Effective
Aiming for Promotion of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Developing Countries
Aiming for Effective Promotion of Climate Change Adaptation Policies in Developing Countries
Impacts of Climate Change upon Asian Coastal Areas: The Case of Metro Manila