This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., full study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Specifically, based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant effects on the labor market outcomes. The results of regression analysis indicate that there are no significant differences between the two programs in terms of employment immediately after graduation, being in graduate-level positions in current jobs, and in the levels of earnings in current jobs. Instead, among the variables related to education, the degree fields, internship experiences, and university rankings are significant for the first employment. For current work, the results suggest that the post-graduation qualifications such as junior engineers and English and Japanese language skills become important. Based on our findings, considering the labor market outcomes as a purpose of studying abroad, twinning program between two countries could be one of the tools of human capital development.
Keywords: cross-border higher education, twinning, study abroad, employment probability, graduate-level jobs, earnings, quality of higher education institutions