Figure8:Healthy Municipalities and Human Security
The concept of "Human Security" is the consolidation of activities against the threat to human survival, lives and dignity, encompassing various types of threats such as financial crises, disputes, terrorist attacks, chronic poverty, disaster or emerging and reemerging infections as typified by HIV/AIDS, beyond the framework of nations. Furthermore, it is explained that "protecting the irreplaceable key areas for human lives and realizing freedom and the capability of all" in the UN Commission on Human Security, co-chaired by current President of JICA, Sadako OGATA and Amartya SEN from Cambridge University. This strategy was originally formed with the initiative of Japanese government in the late 1980s and is an important pillar in the general framework of ODA (Official Development Assistance) of Japan as well as the JICA institutional reform.
In the concept of "Human Securities", an approach to both the government (federal and local) level and the community and residents is recommended. The system of synergetic collaboration between good governance on the government level and autonomy on the empowered community level makes it possible to assure the security of people threatened by poverty and fear.
Based on this philosophy, our project supports approaching both levels regarding municipality and community development. On the government level, the approach aims at coordination among the federal university, state government and local government and reinforcement of the government administrative capacity. On the community level, the approach aims at enhancing the residents' autonomous capacity to live, as shown in Figure 8.
"Capacity Development (CD)" is one of the most important development concepts in the recent development paradigm, which places value on the endogenous and continuing participatory process. It is defined in the United Nations Development Program as "the process by which individuals, organizations, institutions, and societies develop "abilities", individually and collectively, to perform functions, solve problems and set and achieve objectives".
In the framework of the practical use of CD, the actors in development are divided into the government sector and other sectors (such as the local community or private sector).
Moreover, the sectors are divided into individuals, organizations and institution/ society, and the government is required to clarify development goals in terms of defining whose and what type of capability is to be improved. The table displays an example of CD goals for each segment in the Healthy Municipality Project.
|Institution/society||Cooperation between UFPE and SEPLAN||Federal University and State Government support municipalities in collaboration.|
|Organization||UFPE/NUSP||To be able to function as a Referral center for "Healthy Municipalities"|
|SEPLAN/CONDEPEFIDEM||To place "Healthy Municipalities" in state government's development strategy and give priority to pilot municipalities in inputs of program.|
|Individuals||UFPE and SEPLAN Staffs||To be able to explain the concept of "Healthy Municipalities" and technically support municipalities.|
|Others||Institution/society||Healthy Public Policy||Municipal government and community leaders become able to plan and implement healthy public policies that give priority to health and daily living, coordinating and linking existing public policies through intersectoral efforts.|
|Organization||Municipal government||To be able to give financial and technical support to the activities of "Healthy Municipalities" implemented by the people themselves.|
|Community meeting||To be able to implement actions that they can perform by themselves, using their potential capacities.|
|Individuals||Supervisor||To be able to coordinate and activate the activities of "Healthy Municipalities".|
|Facilitator||To be able to support the activities of community meetings that utilize potential capacities.|
|Residents leader||Utilize the potentials of the community itself and improve the quality of life.|