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Outline of the Project

Project Name

Project for Strengthening Capacity in Non-Revenue Water Reduction

Implementation Organization

Ministry of Water & Irrigation (MWI), Water Service Regulatory Authority (WASREB), Kenya Water Institute (KEWI)

Target Area

Entire country of Kenya

Project period

Phase 1: October 2016 to September 2017, for 1 year
Phase 2: October 2017 to September 2019, for 2 years
Phase 3: October 2019 to September 2021, for 2 years

Project Background

Approximately 80% of the land of Kenya is arid and semi-arid. The Kenyan people are reportedly experiencing "water stress" because of the decrease of the available water resource per person caused by the population growth. The Government of Kenya (GoK) has recognized the reduction of non-revenue water (NRW) as a priority issue to be addressed for the effective use of water resources. Meanwhile, many water service providers (WSPs) have taken NRW reduction measures for financial reasons since they became financially independent organizations. Although these measures reduced the NRW ratio to approx. 42% by 2015, many challenges still need to be solved in order to achieve the goal of reducing the NRW ratio to 25% by 2030. (Impact Report 8 issued in 2015)

Against this background, the Government of Japan (GoJ) has implemented the "Project for Management of Non-Revenue Water in Kenya (2010-2014)" (hereinafter as "the Previous Project") together with three grant aid projects; the "Project for Augmentation of Water Supply System in Kapsabet Town (2007 – 2010)," "Project for Improvement of the Water Supply System in Embu and the Surrounding Area (2010 – 2013)" and "Project for Augmentation of Water Supply System in Narok Town (2013 – 2016)." As results of these projects, the facilities of Embu, Narok and Kapsabet WSPs have been improved and their capacity to reduce NRW has been improved in the pilot areas of the Previous Project. In addition, a short-term course on NRW reduction was established at the Kenya Water Institute (KEWI). Although an organizational structure required for WSPs to prepare a plan for NRW reduction was established by achieving the outputs in the Previous Project, only a few WSPs are implementing NRW reduction activities in accordance with plans. This may be because the plans have been prepared without consideration of capacities for implementing actual work, financial or human resources of WSPs were not fully taken into account. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a support system for WSPs to reduce NRW in accordance with realistic plans for fully utilizing the outputs of the Previous Project.

The results of this situation analysis has led to establish a support system for WSPs to continuously reduce NRW by strengthening WSPs and the organizations associated with them. Thus, the "Project for Strengthening Capacity in Non-Revenue Water Reduction" (hereinafter "the Project") has been requested by the GoK in 2014.


Overall Goal

Under NRW reduction support mechanism, Urban WSPs enhance NRW reduction activities.

Project Purpose

A NRW reduction support mechanism is established for Urban WSPs to implement NRW.


Output 1: Promotion and coordination of NRW reduction activities by MWI NRW Unit are strengthened.
Output 2: Use of NRW reduction standards by Urban WSPs are promoted by WASREB.
Output 3: NRW related training capacity of KEWI is strengthened.
Output 4: NRW planning and/or implementation capacity of pilot Urban WSPs is enhanced.
Output 5: Experiences and knowledge of NRW reduction activities are shared among Urban WSPs.

Main Activities

1-1 MWI NRW Unit, in cooperation with WASREB, produces NRW annual reports which include NRW reduction data.
1-2 MWI NRW Unit plans and implements NRW reduction sensitization activities for the Counties.
1-3 MWI NRW Unit plans and implements NRW reduction campaigns.
1-4 MWI NRW Unit conducts reviews of KEWI NRW courses.
1-5 MWI NRW Unit conducts reviews of WASREB's NRW reduction activities.
2-1 WASREB conducts survey of the usage of current NRW reduction standards.
2-2 Based on the survey result as well as Output 4 and 5, WASREB revises the NRW reduction standards.
2-3 WASREB promotes revised NRW standards through workshop(s).
2-4 WASREB incorporates the review results of NRW reduction activities by MWI NRW Unit in their activities.
2-5 WASREB monitors and evaluates the usage of revised NRW standards.
3-1 KEWI studies current status of NRW reduction courses and its challenges.
3-2 KEWI reviews NRW reduction training strategies and course contents.
3-3 KEWI, in collaboration with leading WSPs (Embu and Meru, etc.), conducts on-site NRW trainings.
3-4 KEWI reflects on-site NRW trainings into NRW course contents and materials.
3-5 KEWI incorporates the results of review by MWI NRW Unit into NRW course contents.
3-6 KEWI conducts trace studies of NRW reduction course participants.
4-1 The Project team conducts a survey of Urban WSPs and selects pilot Urban WSPs.
4-2 Each Pilot WSP conducts analyses of current NRW reduction activities and identifies its challenges.
4-3 Each Pilot WSP identifies measures to solve challenges and formulates the NRW reduction plan.
4-4 Each Pilot WSP formulates the annual NRW reduction plan including financial schedule based on the NRWE reduction plan.
4‐5  Each Pilot WSP implements the annual NRW reduction plan.
4-6 Each Pilot WSP evaluates and analyzes implementation results and revises the plans.
4-7 Each Pilot WSP produces the NRW reduction activity report annually.
4-8 Each Pilot WSP holds regular NRW reduction meetings attended by relevant departments of WSP.
5-1 MWI NRW Unit organizes NRW related regular meetings in cooperation with other relevant organizations.
5-2 WASREB compiles case studies/lessons learnt about NRW reduction activities.


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