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Outline of the Project

Project Name

Integrated Mangrove Rehabilitation and Management Project through Community Participation in the Ayewady Delta



Date of R/D signed

September 29, 2006

Project Area

Ayeyawady Division (Region), Laputta, Bogalay, and Pyar Pon Townships
*Also see "Project Target Location" for the detail location.

Project Duration

April 1, 2007 – March 31, 2013
(The duration has been extended one year after the Cyclone Nargis occurred in 2008)


Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry (FD: Responsible agency)
Department of Fisheries (DoF: cooperating agency)
Myanma Agricultural Services (MAS: cooperating agency)
Settlement and Land Record Department (SLRD: supporting agency)

Project Background

In Myanmar, the Ayeyawady Delta is one of the seriously degraded forest areas, where decades of extensive expansion of agricultural land, unsustainable forest use, and more recently, increase of aquaculture activities have severely damaged the remaining mangrove forests in the area. The degradation of the forest has most affected local residents using mangroves forest resources for fuel wood and poles. Farmers growing traditional paddy varieties in the brackish water areas have suffered from salinity and bank erosion from lack of protection. Fishermen have also suffered from smaller catches in the degraded mangrove environment, where the loss of tree cover has negatively affected to fish-breeding habitat.

In view of the significance of managing the forest resources in the Ayeyawady Delta, during the period of 2002 to 2005, JICA dispatched a team of experts to conduct the Study on Integrated Mangrove Management through Community Participation in the Ayeyawady Delta. The results of the Study have contributed to formulating a management plan, "the Integrated Mangrove Management Plan (2005-2044) (hereinafter referred to as "IMMP") which aims to support sustainable coexistence of mangrove forests and communities in the Kyakankwinpawk, Pyinalan, Kadonkani and Pyindaye Reserved Forests. It has been approved by the Government of Myanmar (hereinafter referred to as "GOM").

In order to support the implementation of the IMMP Phase I, a technical cooperation was requested by GOM to JICA in May 2005. A Preparatory Study was conducted by JICA in December 2005 and GOM and JICA signed the Record of Discussions (R/D) for a project in September 2006, and it was scheduled to complete in March 2012. In accordance with R/D, JICA expert team started the Project activities in the target area from April 2007.

However in May 2008, Cyclone Nargis hit the Ayeyawady Delta and caused crucial damage in the project area, including mangrove forests, local communities and social infrastructure. Due to this natural disaster, the project was interrupted for 8 months (until December 2008). JICA and Myanmar counterparts reviewed project contents and in January 2009, at the 3rd JCC meeting, JCC approved the revised PDM (PDM1) which added activities for disaster recovery/ prevention in the project.

Changes in contents of Project Design Matrix (PDM)

PDM versionMajor Changes
PDM (version 0) (September 9th, 2006) 
PDM (version 1) (January 28th, 2009)Added recovery activities from the Cyclone Nargis
PDM (version 2) (July 14th, 2011)Reviewed the Outputs and Project activities, and consolidate recovery activities as the fifth Output additional to the existing four Outputs

Overall Goal

The mangrove forests are sustainably managed and poverty is alleviated among the communities in the Ayeyawady Delta.

Project Purpose

The communities and the mangrove forests co-exist in a sustainable manner in the selected areas where project activities were implemented within the Ayeyawady Delta.


  • 1. The selected communities practice environmentally and economically sustainable community forestry (CF).
  • 2. The management and the support system of the Forest Department (FD) for CF is effective.
  • 3. Some silvicultural techniques for the rehabilitation and the management of the mangrove and its associated forests for the Ayeyawady Delta are established.
  • 4. A coordination mechanism is established among key sectors to address the underlying causes of mangrove deforestation in the Ayeyawady Delta.
  • X. Recovery from damage of Cyclone Nargis is promoted. (Additional Output after the Cyclone Nargis in May 2008)


A. Activities for Output 1

1-1Select villages to introduce CF from the ones that express interest.
1-2Conduct baseline survey on the basic socio-economic conditions of the selected villages.
1-3Organize/reorganize CF User Groups (CFUSGs) in the selected villages.
1-4Assist the CFUSGs in preparing/updating their CF Management Plans and proposals for CF certificates through participatory planning process.
1-5Issue CF certificates to the CFUSGs based on the proposals as per the CF Instruction (CFI).
1-6Assist the CFUSGs in implementing the certified CF Management Plans.
1-7Implement various capacity strengthening programs to enhance the income levels of the CFUSGs in partnership with Cooperating Agencies such as Department of Fisheries (DOF), Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS), and other institutions.
1-8Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the certified CF Management Plans.
1-9Conduct impact survey regarding the effects of CF on the livelihoods of the members of the CFUSGs.

B. Activities for Output 2

2-1Identify necessary activities for CF management and CF extension & support by each Reserve Forest (RF) based on review of the CF contents of the Integrated Mangrove Management Plan (IMMP).
2-2Confirm the roles and responsibilities of the technical members of CF Task Force (technical MCFTF) for the identified activities.
2-3Assess the needs of the technical MCFTF (e.g. financial, logistics and human resource development needs) to implement the identified activities.
2-4Develop training plan & materials based on the assessment of the human resource development needs conducted in 2.3.
2-5Train the technical MCFTF according to the plan.
2-6Construct/renovate the CF Extension Center & Nursery in each RF.
2-7Provide extension services and support to the CFUSGs in each RF.
2-8Carry out public awareness campaigns regarding CF and the conservation of mangrove forests.
2-9Draft detailed Standardized Operational Procedure (SOP) for CF for the mangrove forests based on the existing SOP of the FD (i.e. Departmental Instructions) and feedback from the Project activities.

C. Activities for Output 3

3-1Conduct surveys for identification of silvicultural techniques for both community and non-community forestry with respect to the eco-geographical/management zones in the Ayeyawady Delta.
3-2Prepare the specific Action Research (AR) test designs for each of the identified silvicultural technique (e.g. seedling production, planning designs and methods, thinning, pruning, forest management).
3-3Execute the AR in each RF.
3-4Conduct periodic technical monitoring/preliminary assessment on the AR plantation (ARP).
3-5Prepare a technical report on action research (AR) for mangrove in English and Myanmar.
3-6Develop technical guidelines for rehabilitation and management of mangrove forests based on the findings of the AR.

D. Activities for Output 4

4-1Organize an inter-agency coordination meeting, consisting of relevant authorities (e.g. agriculture, fisheries, settlement and land records) at the Regional level to examine the underlying causes for mangrove deforestation in the Ayeyawady Delta.
4-2Update the land use information on periodic basis based on the up-to-date satellite images for discussion by the coordination meeting members, including overall forest resource assessment of the region and mangrove forest conversion.
4-3Organize seminars to promote synergies among the relevant sectors for the sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystem in the Ayeyawady Delta.
4-4Organize a coordination meeting with donors/NGOs active in the Target Area at District Level.

E. Activities for Output X

X-1Prepare a hazard map based on analysis of damage of the Cyclone Nargis.
X-2Conduct quick damage & recovery survey in the target area.
X-3Conduct village profile survey in the target area.
X-4Conduct survey for recovery condition of mangrove vegetation from damage of Cyclone Nargis in the target area.
X-5Rehabilitate the CF Extension Center and Nursery in each RF including facility with cyclone-proof structure.
X-6Support recovery or disaster prevention work of Implementation and Cooperative Organizations in the target area through material supply.
X-7Conduct public awareness activities on disaster prevention in the target area.
X-8Arrange necessary coordination among donors in the integrated mangrove management


A. Japanese Side

  1. Experts: Chief Advisor, Participatory Community Development, Mangrove Forestry, Coordinator, and others in specific fields (e.g. Extension, GIS, Agro-Forestry, Fish Culture, Forestry Value-added Production, Marketing and Distribution)
  2. Machinery and Equipment: Boat(s), Vehicle(s), and other equipment would be provided if necessary
  3. Local Operation Costs
    • Livelihood improvement
    • Mangrove plantation
    • Facility management
    • Others: Trainings/Seminars, Patrols, Coordination Committee

B. Myanmar Side

  1. Personnel: Project Director, Project Manager, Project Coordinator, Field Project Manager, Other MCFTF, etc.
  2. Land, Building and Facilities: Project Office, Land for the action research, Jetty and space necessary for storage of boats and vehicles, etc.
  3. Local Operational Costs: Minimum of US$ 100,000 equivalent in 5 years

Important Assumptions

Activity Level

  • No significant natural hazards occur that will impact the rehabilitation of mangrove forests (e.g. cyclones, tsunami, floods, pests, diseases).
  • Relevant authorities and stakeholders are supportive to promote sustainable management of mangrove forests.

Output Level

  • No drastic increase in the population within the four reserved forests.
  • External pressure to convert the mangrove forests to other land uses does not increase.

Project Level

  • Favorable markets exist for CF products.
  • FD's policy on the management of the four reserved forests does not change significantly.
  • Sufficient financial and other resources are allocated for the sustainable management of mangrove forests.


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