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JICA USA Newsletter

June/July 2006

Sub-Saharan Africa

In order to stimulate world interest in African development after the end of the Cold War era, in 1993 Japan began jointly hosting the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) with international organizations such as the UN. At TICAD III in 2003, Japan announced that it would contribute to African development with the international community and African countries based on the three pillars of human-centered development, poverty reduction through economic development, and consolidation of peace. At the Asia-Africa Summit held in Indonesia in April 2005, the Japanese government announced a plan to host TICAD IV in 2008 and to double its ODA to Africa over the next three years as part of its continued commitment to assistance to Africa. JICA specifies poverty reduction on the basis of human security as its ultimate goal for development in Africa. Based on Japan's guidelines for aid to Africa and the common aims of the international community, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), JICA provides support according to the following guidelines.

  • Contribution to MDGs (cooperation for poverty alleviation, improvement of social development indices)
  • Deployment of projects with a focus on human security (enhancement of support for vulnerable groups and communities)
  • Timely reconstruction assistance in post-conflict countries
  • Follow-up of TICAD III (human-centered development, poverty reduction through economic development, and consolidation of peace) and collaboration with the New Partnership of Africa's Development (NEPAD)
  • Support for policy making processes in each country and strengthening of aid coordination through the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).

In providing the above-mentioned cooperation, JICA promotes intra-regional cooperation among African countries through effective use of regional bases and South-South cooperation, which utilizes Asia's experience in development.

African Development: TICAD and Japanese ODA

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TICAD has become a major global framework for Asia and Africa to collaborate in promoting Africa's development. The first Tokyo Conference was held in 1993 and ushered in a continuing process of support for Africa and consensus-building around African development priorities. That process was bolstered with a second Tokyo conference in 1998. The third Tokyo Conference (TICAD III) was held 29 September - 1 October 2003 and marked TICAD's tenth anniversary. This landmark session was aimed at ensuring that regional priorities are fully addressed in harmony with the approach of Africa's own new platform for recovery ・NEPAD (the New Partnership for Africa's Development).

Since the Third Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD III), Japan has made the "consolidation of peace" one of the three key policy pillars of its assistance to Africa. Last year, support for Africa drew significant international attention and it was called the "Year of Africa". Japan announced at the Asia-Africa Conference in April last year that it would double its ODA to Africa in the course of three years. Following this Japan announced at the G8 Gleneagles Summit in July that it would enhance its support for consolidating peace in Africa.

West Africa

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Niger is a country that more often evokes images of food shortages and humanitarian crises. In order to ignite significant sustainable and long-term results, JICA's project "Everyone's School' provides a picture of spurring community's ownership and responsibility for their own education.

Niger: School for All

Parallel efforts in education and health are critically needed in order to provide factual information and basic health services to areas in West Africa, such as Ghana and particularly those affected by malaria and other diseases. Through the dispatching of experts and other technical cooperation activities, JICA has managed to establish the West African Center for International Parasite Control in Ghana as an information and research hub for the community and even the government authorities.

Ghana: West African Center for International Parasite Control

East Africa

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Ethiopia has one of the world's lowest rates of houses equipped with a water supply. In order to provide its people with safe water, the government of Ethiopia established the Ministry of Water Resources in 1994 and asked Japan for help with a project to train human resources in the field of groundwater development.

Ethiopia Water Energy Center

Developing countries are affected by a vicious circle of poverty and environmental destruction. JICA's approach in this area is based on three perspectives: the sustainable use of natural resources, the conservation of biodiversity, and the restoration of wasteland.

Kenya: Social Forestry Extension Model

Southern Africa

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Angola's transport-related and infrastructure facilities in general suffered significantly during the 22 years civil war that ravaged the country until 2002. JICA's project highlighted in this newsletter consists in two phases: first an emergency port reconstruction, followed by transport links to inland roads.

Angola:Comprehensive Port Development

The lake Alaotra region is the largest rice producing area in the island. Unsustainable agricultural activities have created multiple problems such as land degradation and deterioration of irrigation mechanism. JICA's project looks at the diversification of rural development areas, technical cooperation on irrigation processes and better management of headwaters.

Madagascar: Rural Development

Focus on Project: AIDS Study in South Africa

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A deadly illness has effects that reach far beyond the particular person who contracts it, affecting the lives and livelihoods of their children, other relatives, and the larger community. The HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa can not only kill people in staggering numbers, but can also perpetuate poverty and low standards of living.

These were some key findings of a Japan- sponsored study on the state of human capital in South Africa. Conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), headquartered in Washington, D.C., the University of KwaZulu-Natal and JICA, the research has produced sobering reports in the past six months.

Beyond its immediate lethal impact, AIDS also blocks the rise of at least some South Africans out of poverty. When adults between the ages of 20 and 44 die in large numbers, adolescents often leave school and enter the labor market sooner, but their lack of a complete education makes higher-paying jobs more elusive. High AIDS mortality rates might be especially harmful when it forces women to finish school early, although the precise nature of its impact is unclear. Researchers do not know whether South African women who have left school take on jobs in the workforce or stay home to care for the sick. Either outcome, however, could later have negative consequences for the poor: the absence of women from both school and the workplace could hamper their economic and social prospects and deprive families of an extra source of income; at the same time, the absence of a regular adult presence in the household could disrupt the lives and rearing of children.

email: jicaus-newsletter@jica.go.jp
web: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/

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