Uganda is located in a key position for regional trade and development, connecting the landlocked, resource-rich countries with an external port (Kenya's Port of Mombasa). It also functions as a food supply area for neighboring countries often suffering from food shortages. However, Uganda is struggling to realize equal poverty reduction across the country. Due to the past conflict with anti-government forces which lasted for more than two decades, northern region of Uganda is lagging far behind in terms of basic infrastructure and social services development, and this is causing the large regional disparities between northern region and the central or southern regions. JICA's cooperation to Uganda is primarily focused on: 1) improving the environment to attain economic growth, 2) raising incomes in rural areas, 3) improving the living environment (health services and water supply), and 4) providing support in the northern region.