In the Central and South American region, Guatemala's Human Development Index is second lowest following that of Haiti in 2012 , UNDP "Human Development Report 2012" and the country has a serious situation in terms of regional and ethnic disparities of the poverty rate and extreme-poverty rate. Strengthening the social infrastructure and extending quality education and health services are urgent issues. Those that make up the poorest segment of society are the most susceptible to the natural disasters and environmental degradation. Because those factors impede improvements in the living standard, international cooperation for the disaster risk reduction and environmental conservation are needed along with assistance for economic development. Toward implementation of effective strategic aid, JICA's support focuses on "livelihood improvement for poorness", "vitalization in rural area" and "environment and disaster risk management".