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Outline of the Project

Project name

Improvement of livelihood for small-scale famers in eastern Black Sea Region



Project Site

6 provinces of Eastern Blak Sea Resion (Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumusane, Guresun and Ordu)

Term of Cooperation

From Feb. 2007 to Mar.2010

Implementing Agencies

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affaires



photoModel area in hazelnut zone

photoModel area in tea zone

photoModel area in tourism zone

Agriculture sector is still one of the important sectors in the Republic of Turkey, although service sector including tourism takes the largest share. The farmland occupies 33.2% of the total land, and farmers contribute about 30% of the total labor force. About 60% of agricultural workforce comes from women. While, the share of agriculture sector in GDP is decreasing year-by-year (35% in 1970 to 11.7% in 2005). Therefore, the GDP per capita in agriculture drops in comparison with other sectors. Consequently, the people in rural area move to urban area in search for better job, and economic situation becomes worse.

The Eastern Black Sea Region is one of the least developed areas in the country. The agriculture sector involves about 60% of the total labor in the region, and 90% of whom are woman labor, but on the contrary, the share of agriculture sector to the regional GDP is 18% only. The main cash crop is hazelnut and tea, which are suitable for the topography and climate of the region. Recently the prices of these commodities have fallen down due to the overproduction, and the present farming system, which is highly dependent on these crops, which could not sustain the farmers' income as before. With such background, the Turkish Government was concerned about weakness of the economic structure caused by monoculture in the region, and requested the Japanese Government for technical cooperation to stabilize the regional economy and mitigate the income differential through improvement of farming structure.

Receiving the request, the preliminary study was carried out in March 2005, to identify the scope of the project. Based on the results of the preliminary study, the Record of Discussions (R/D) on the Project was signed by both Japanese and Turkish sides on October 20, 2006.


Overall Goal:

  1. Farming improvement method is extended to the small-scale farmers in the 6 provinces.
  2. The livelihoods of the small-scale farmers are improved in the model area.

Project Purpose: Basic structure and systems of farming improvement for the 6 provinces is developed.


  1. Agricultural information and extension system for the farming improvement is developed.
  2. Experimental multiple farming is implemented in the model area.
  3. Farming improvement plan for small-scale farmers in the 6 provinces is proposed.


Project Activities

1-1Implement farming analysis on farmer participation basis.
1-2Research marketability of the additional income sources.
1-3Examine adequate production techniques of additional income sources.
1-4Examine the combination pattern of additional income sources in consideration of farming situation.
1-5Make manuals of farming analysis, market research, suitable production techniques of additional income sources and planning of the multiple farming.
1-6Implement trainings for agriculture engineers of the model area.
2-1Organize farmers in the model area.
2-2Introduce the multiple farming in the model area.
2-3Organize farmer women in the model area.
2-4Introduce activities for additional incomes to women groups.
2-5Implement study tours for farmers.
3-1Select extension area under Turkish-side's initiative.
3-2Implement a socio-economy research in extension area under Turkish-side's initiative.
3-3Teach techniques and know-how of establishment of the multiple farming to agriculture engineers of 6 provinces.
3-4Implement trainings of organizing method for leader farmers and farm-village women group.
3-5Make a draft farming improvement plan.

Input Summary byJapanese Side

  • Experts: Leader/ Farming Improvement 1, Co-Leader/ Agronomy 1/ Farming Improvement 2, Extension 1, Farmers' Organization/ Extension 2, Agronomy 2/ Extension 3, Women's Activity/ Extension 4, Market Research/ Farm Economy
  • Employment of local consultant for researches
  • C/P training in Japan (within 3 fields, 1 person each)
  • Consumption articles for farming improvement
  • Local cost (travel expenses of Japanese experts)


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