Papua New Guinea has the largest land area (roughly 1.2 times the size of Japan) and population (about 6.88 million people) among the Pacific Island Countries, and is blessed with abundant mineral resources such as gold, copper and petroleum. However, the transportation, power and energy infrastructures essential for a living base and economic activities are insufficient to meet the domestic demand. On the other hand, rural areas face problems such as a low literacy rate and high child mortality rate. Due to the overdevelopment and the influx of people into urban areas, the natural and living environments have worsened, and forest resources are also declining in quantity and quality. JICA's focus of assistance to Papua New Guinea is on: 1) strengthening the economic growth base, 2) improving social services, and 3) the environment and climate change.