Based on JICA's experience with disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation projects in Southeast Asia, this report summarizes the importance of ex-ante risk reduction and the key challenges associated with its implementation.
The objective of adaptation is to reduce the magnitude of risks in terms of vulnerability and exposure, taking into account the intensification of hazards under climate change. But challenges cited include uncertainties, preparation periods and costs, and the difficulty of coordination, decision-making and implementation (capital, technology, community resettlement and more).
In the case of the Philippines, government leadership and prompt decision-making, as well as timely financial and technical assistance, were recognized as important. In the case of Thailand, coordination remains to be seen. These case studies also suggest that even for large Southeast Asian cities with a high capacity for risk reduction, it is difficult to implement, and that chronic vulnerability may persist and lead to inequality through failed adaptation.
The JICA Ogata Sadako Research Institute for Peace and Development has brought forth the latest research on climate change adaptation. This paper presents concrete measures for adaptation, which were extracted from an analysis of JICA's projects. It shows how the institute's research results could be reflected in JICA's development projects.
This is a background paper for a presentation at the Emerging Market Forum, held in October 2019.