JICA Ogata Research Institute

Publications

Working Papers

No.10 Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Rural Indonesia

This paper examines the impact of spatial connectivity on household income growth and non-agriculture labor supply, combining household panel data and village census in Indonesia during the period of 1995-2007. Empirical results show that the impacts of improved local road quality on income growth and the transition to non-agricultural labor markets depends on household education and distance to economic centers. In particular, post-primary education significantly increases the benefit from the improvement of local spatial connectivity in remote areas, promoting labor transition to non-agricultural sectors. Education and local road quality are complementary, mutually increasing non-agricultural labor supply and income in remote areas.

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