Human security is a concept that has caught the attention of governments and scholars around the world, despite having emerged only fairly recently. In most countries, however, the level of understanding of the concept and its related issues remains low. This study aims to determine how the concept of human security is understood in Vietnam. It begins with a review of the law and policies relating to human security in Vietnam. This review shows that the human security concept has not been acknowledged or regulated in any official documents of the State. The constituent elements of human security, however, can be distilled from legislation even though the connection to it is not explicitly made. A literature review pertaining to this issue also demonstrates that within the epistemic community, human security is not a common topic of discussion. Only a few authors have attempted to analyze it in the context of Vietnam. Finally, the findings gathered from interviews conducted with representatives from five sectors, including the government, epistemic community, civil societies, media, and private business, help provide a more accurate picture regarding the level of awareness of human security issues in Vietnam. In general, the interviewees were not familiar with the concept itself, but were able to quickly link it, and threats to human security, to different aspects of their lives. The research has also found that there is a high expectation that the government will assume a leading role in protecting and promoting human security in Vietnam.