The importance of biodiversity to human welfare is widely recognized and environmental impact assessment (EIA) is regarded as a useful tool to minimize adverse impacts on biodiversity due to development. However, biodiversity loss continues in particular in developing countries though biodiversity-inclusive assessment has been implemented for a long time.
The purpose of this working paper is to propose a practical approach for mainstreaming biodiversity into development cooperation projects. This paper examines the biodiversity mitigation measures of 120 EIA reports prepared by the Japan International Cooperation Agency from 2001 to 2012 using quantitative text analysis. The present biodiversity considerations are inadequately addressed and the avoidance measures are quite scarce.
Ecosystems have multiple benefits and it is worthwhile to incorporate their benefits into development cooperation projects. The application of mitigation hierarchy aiming for no net loss and green infrastructure approaches to make wise use of ecosystem services can be one solution to stop biodiversity loss and satisfy development needs.
Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem services, mitigation hierarchy, green infrastructure, ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction