December 26, 2011
|JICA-RI Director Akio Hosono at the thematic session|
As a part of JICA delegation, JICA-RI Director Dr. Akio Hosono, Director of Research Program Division Go Shimada, and Research Associate Shunichiro Honda participated in the Forum as well as the pre-High-Level-Forum-4 Conference “Toward a Global Compact for Development Effectiveness” organized by Korea Development Institute (KDI) and Korea Association of International Development and Cooperation (KAIDEC) also in Busan on the day prior to the HLF-4.
Changing Aid Landscape
Since the first forum in 2003, the Forum has expanded and changed its form to reflect the transforming aid landscape over the past eight years. What started out as a conference largely led by major donors including members of OECD DAC (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Development Assistance Committee) and multilateral organizations now extends its arm to fully engage recipient countries and essential players such as nongovernmental organizations, private corporations and funds, and emerging donors like China and India.
Data shows the change was indispensable. DAC development assistance accounted for over 80% of the total aid volume in 1995-98, but the figure dropped to 56% in 2005-2008. Meanwhile, the aid from private philanthropy and non-DAC donors has seen an increase from 18% to 38% during the same period and is on the rise (Catalyzing Development: A New Vision for Aid by JICA, KOICA and the Brookings Institution, 2011). As DAC members’ official development assistance is unlikely to grow substantially in the current global economic climate, aid effectiveness needs to be discussed among all development actors, both traditional and new.
|U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton|
Expectation Rising for New Aid Modality
The presence of the new actors was felt throu ghout the latest hig h-level forum whose theme was “Building a New Global Pa rtnership for Effective Development Cooperation.”
HLF-4 Private Sector Forum was organized as an opportunity to debate on the role of the private sector in aid and development effectiveness, and numerous representatives from private corporations and funds to financial institutions, as well as governments and development organizations gathered to exchange ideas.
It is also symbolic that Korea was chosen as the host of the Forum. As President Lee said in the opening ceremony, it was once a war-torn and poverty-struck aid recipient but resurrected itself as a “vibrant democracy and economy.” Having become the OECD DAC member in 2009, the country has been active in assisting developing countries with the knowledge from its own experience.
With emerging donors such as Brazil and China extensively operating aid projects, attending delegates paid keen attention to South-South cooperation and Triangular Cooperation, which is an aid modality where one developing country assists capacity development of another developing country (South-South), and additionally an OECD donor supports a South-South corporation, making it a trilateral operation.
Various presenters mentioned the importance of South-South/Triangular Cooperation in speeches and presentations while the official thematic session and JICA-UNDP special side event on this topic drew a room-full of avid listeners.
|Lee Myung-Bak, President of the Republic of Korea|
At the thematic session, some raised a question on whether South-South cooperation would possibly replace traditional North-South cooperation (a developed country helps a developing country). To this, several newer donors responded, stating South-South cooperation does not negate the traditional aid but they are complementary. In his presentation, Director Hosono stressed that South-South/triangular cooperation and North-South cooperation have their respective and comparative advantages for different kinds of knowledge creation in various domains of development.
Despite the level of attention to South-South/Triangular Cooperation, discussions firmly based on the concrete field practices are scarce. Director Marco Farani of the Brazilian Agency for Cooperation pointed out there is not much practice compared to theories and said “we should do more.” Director Hosono added that “knowledge is the key component” and “sharing experiences is badly needed for advancing mutual learning to promote effective South-South and triangular cooperation.”
| Speakers of the thematic session on South-South and Triangular co-operation|
(second from right: Akio Hosono)
The three-day forum ended with ministers and representatives from participating countries and organizations adopting a new global partnership which continues to place an importance on principles including country ownership, transparency and accountability, and results-oriented actions. As the framework has broadened to become much more inclusive with actors like the private sector and emerging economies (Brazil, China and India, among others) having joined, some critics voice concerns on how all the endorsed groups can make actual progress and keep the promises.
Still, Homi Kharas, senior research fellow at the Brookings Institution welcomed the results positively. “There was a tremendous progress from last time because so many more participants came and agreed on the outcome document,” he said. “These [emerging countries] are now very important providers of development cooperation, both individually through South-South cooperation, and in combination through triangular cooperation.”
JICA-RI Director Hosono reflected on the Forum. “As Southern countries are gaining a greater voice than ever, South-South cooperation has come under the spotlight...JICA-RI should examine Japan’s experience of triangular cooperation from research perspective and determine what can be learned. Then, it could be utilized by many other countries while it would be a great reference in implementing JICA’s future projects. In this respect, the High-Level Forum turned out a very important opportunity,” he concluded.
Director, JICA Research Institute
|Day||November 29, 2011(Tue) - December 01, 2011(Thu)|
|Place||Busan, South Korea|