According to the Asian Development Bank’s report entitled “Meeting Asia’s Infrastructure Needs” published in February 2017, developing Asia will need to invest approximately USD1.7 trillion annually between 2016 and 2030 in economic infrastructure—covering power, transportation, telecommunications, and water and sanitation—to maintain growth momentum and respond to climate change.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)'s research covers social infrastructure and disaster risk reduction infrastructure between 2016 and 2030 to complement ADB’s demand estimate for economic infrastructure.
Social infrastructure, such as schools and hospitals, requires capital investment to maintain social services and secure the economic development of regions in which the population is expected to increase. The financial impact of such investment is estimated to be enormous.
For this study, the research team first narrowed its focus to three Asian countries, namely, Japan, Indonesia, and Thailand. The intention was to establish an appropriate methodology to estimate the social infrastructure demand across all of Asia. This collection of reports provides case studies of Indonesia and Thailand.
The Institute for Economic and Social Research; the Faculty of Economics Universities Indonesia (LPEM-FEUI); and the JICA Research Institute prepared the case study report on Indonesia.
Kitti Limskul from Saitama University and Nattapong Puttanapong from Thammasat University prepared the case study report on Thailand, in collaboration with the JICA Research Institute.
- [Indonesia] Estimating the Demand for Social Infrastructure Investment in Indonesia (Full text)（PDF／2.22MB）
- [Thailand] Asia’s Social Infrastructure Demand Estimate: The Case of Thailand (Full text)（PDF／13.1MB）
- [Thailand] Cover（PDF／61.7KB）
- [Thailand] Abbreviations（PDF／77.9KB）
- [Thailand] Acknowledgement（PDF／32.3KB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 1 Introduction（PDF／727KB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 2 Economic Development and Social Implications in Thailand（PDF／1.67MB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 3 Social Infrastructure Demand: A Macro Approach（PDF／2.46MB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 4 Social Infrastructure Needs on Human Capital: Education and Government Services（PDF／2.95MB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 5 Social Infrastructure Demand for Health Services（PDF／1.97MB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 6 Social Infrastructure Demand for Low Income Housing（PDF／4.27MB）
- [Thailand] Chapter 7 Summary and Recommendations（PDF／804KB）
- [Thailand] Executive Summary（PDF／721KB）
- [Thailand] References（PDF／347KB）