Following the enactment of the Freedom and Information Act (a Japanese law enforcing public disclosure of government as well as administrative information) and the budget cut in FY 2002, the Japanese government through the JICA will implement a new form of Technical Cooperation.
Beginning Request Survey 2003, the Japanese government, through the JICA Philippine Office shall fully implement a new approach to technical cooperation. Schemes formerly known as Individual Expert Dispatch, Equipment Supply, Expert Team Dispatch, Research Cooperation, Counterpart, Individual / Country-focused / In-Country / Third Country Training and the Project-Type Technical Cooperation (PTTC) will be merged to form a single cooperation scheme which shall be known as a Technical Cooperation Project (TCP)
The implementation of the new form of technical cooperation aims to improve the quality and efficiency of technical cooperation. The following are the characteristics of a typical technical cooperation project: (i) designed to achieve certain objectives within a given budget over a specific project timeframe, (ii) inputs will be clearly defined and the outputs quantifiable; (iii) direct and foreseeable input-output relationship; and (iv) subject to an evaluation based on the project design matrix and or cost-benefit analysis.
Shift to "Program Approach"
JICA defines "JICA's Cooperation Program" as a group of related projects or services directed toward the attainment of specific (usually similar or related) objectives. In order for JICA to effectively and efficiently utilize its limited resources, it has focused the use of its resources to its priority issues / areas. JICA has likewise formulated a number of JICA cooperation programs under which various JICA schemes are effectively integrated.
Inasmuch as this "Program Approach" is being espoused to further strengthen JICA's cooperation programs, proponent agencies are therefore advised to consult JICA experts who are currently assigned in their agencies in the formulation of new project proposals. This is to ensure that the new project proposals are well coordinated with on-going JICA programs and projects.
The diagram below illustrates JICA's definition of Cooperation "Program" and "Project":
|A group of related projects or services directed toward the attainment of specific (usually similar or related) objectives.
|A planned undertaking designed to achieve certain specific objectives within a given budget and within a specified period of time.
Under the previous approach, Technical Cooperation (TC) was classified as either a PTTC, IEDP, ESP etc. Under the new approach, a TCP is defined as any or a combination of a number of components in order to attain certain objectives. This means that instead of combining schemes per se, a TCP would now be composed of any or a combination of the following components:
Possible Components of a Technical Cooperation
Individual experts are dispatched in response to requests from the government agencies. They are assigned to government-related organizations, where they provide policy advice to their counterpart personnel in their respective fields of expertise. They may also contribute in the project formulation for other types of cooperation programs.
There are two (2) categories of long-term experts, namely: 1) new, and, 2) successor or extension of the assignment of the existing expert. On the other hand, there are two (2) categories of short-term experts; namely: 1) general, and 2) seminar (duration of assignment is only one to two weeks).
The proponent agency is required to provide the following, but not limited to: (i) counterpart personnel to whom the expert will provide advice; (ii) office space for the expert; and, (iii) budget to cover for the cost of operating and maintaining the equipment which the expert may provide during the expert`s entire stay in the agency, the cost of participation of counterpart personnel in field visits. Please note that experts are dispatched to give policy advice to their counterparts, hence, they should not be requested to perform regular functions of the proponent/host agency.
(*TCP: Technical Cooperation Project)