JICA conducts various forms of cooperation in accordance with the development stage of each developing country or region. Within that assistance, JICA gives priority to preventive measures and emphasizes the establishment of environmental management systemthrough a capacity development approach. JICA puts emphasis on enhancing the capacity of organizations and individuals for better environmental management.
Currently, JICA focuses on the following 4 strategic areas.
1. Assistance in Solid Waste Management and Establishment of a Sound Material-Cycle Society
The amount and composition of solid waste depend largely on the level of economic development of each partner country. This highlights the need to extend assistance according to such stages. Therefore, JICA has defined 3 developmental stages as shown below. Assistance will be extended according to the developmental stage of each partner country or region, as well as to their conditions and needs.
Stage I: Improving public health and sanitation [See the Case Study]
Stage II: Reducing environmental impacts and pollution control
Stage III: Promoting 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) approach to establish a sound material-cycle society
2. Assistance in Addressing Pollution of Water, Air, etc.
JICA assists regulatory and institutional development, as well as capacity development of public authorities and citizens, together with assessment of the actual situation. Special priority is given to (1) integrated assistance in both development of sewerage system and capacity building in the area of operation and maintenance; (2) assistance in water environment management in urban areas; (3) air pollution abatement measures, including PM2.5; and (4) mercury pollution prevention measures and management of chemical substances.
3. Comprehensive Assistance at Local Level
JICA assists sustainable city planning and associated legislative arrangements as well as human resource development to address cross-sectoral challenges involving the environment, public health, climate change, recycling and waste management, and other issues at local level.
4. Assistance in Taking Advantage of Japan's Experience
Local governments in Japan have accumulated expertise in countermeasures against climate change, solid waste management, sewerage development, and air pollution control. By strengthening partnership with such local governments, JICA makes more effective use of Japanese experience in formulating/implementing projects in these sectors. This approach also takes advantage of the technology and know-how of Japanese businesses, universities, and research institutions in supporting the development of environmental technologies that fit the conditions of developing countries.