Technical Cooperation Projects

Responding to Diverse and Multifaceted Needs

The needs of developing countries are becoming increasingly diverse and multifaceted. In addition to agricultural development and the development of the social infrastructure covering such areas as water supply and healthcare improvements, in recent years, these needs have extended to support for formulating measures against climate change, transitioning to a market economy, and developing legal systems as well as peacebuilding and reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan, Sudan and elsewhere. While some of the needs can be met by improving situations through financial cooperation for constructing facilities and providing equipment, there is also the need to pursue cooperation focused on enhancing problem-solving capabilities of developing countries for ensuring their self-reliant development and sustainable development outcomes.

To respond to such wide-ranging needs, JICA's Technical Cooperation supports human resource development, research and development, technology dissemination and the development of institutional frameworks essential for the development of economies and societies in developing countries by dispatching experts, accepting training participants and/or providing equipment.

Additionally, to enable developing countries to engage in economic activities while realizing a stable society through their self-efforts, it is important that developing countries nurture a sense of ownership. Those principal objectives of Technical Cooperation, enhancing problem-solving capabilities and a sense of ownership are properly attained by customizing the content of cooperation for responding to broad-ranging issues together with developing countries.

Effectively Combining a Variety of Cooperation Tools

(1) Dispatch of Experts

Japanese experts are dispatched to developing countries to disseminate necessary technologies and knowledge to partner country government officials and engineers (counterparts). At the same time, they cooperate with these counterparts in developing and spreading technologies and institutions suited to the conditions in those countries as well as conducting awareness-raising activities. Giving consideration to a partner country's regional characteristics, historical background and language, when appropriate, JICA dispatches experts from third countries (countries other than Japan or the partner country) rather than experts from Japan in order to deliver services more efficiently.

(2) Acceptance of Training Participants

JICA invites competent personnel in developing countries, who have significant responsibility in social and economic development, to Japan as training participants. They participate in training programs in Japan (see page 144, Training and Dialogue Programs in Japan, for details) and obtain knowledge and technologies needed in their home countries. JICA also organizes training programs in partner countries or in third countries.

(3) Technical Cooperation Projects

Technical Cooperation projects, which optimally combine the "Dispatch of Experts," "Acceptance of Training Participants" and/or provision of equipment are the core operations of JICA's Technical Cooperation. Even more reliable project outcomes can be obtained through systematic and comprehensive project operation and implementation from planning to implementation and evaluation.

To raise a sense of ownership of developing countries, many Technical Cooperation projects adopt "participatory" methods, whereby local people in each project's target area participate in planning, operation management and evaluation activities. JICA also collaborates with private enterprises, universities, NGOs and other organizations to utilize their cumulative experience, knowledge and know-how in projects in order to address more-complex and high-level issues.

Technical Cooperation Projects—An Integrated Implementation Process

1) Project Identification and Formulation
JICA identifies and formulates projects through discussion with the government of the partner country, information gathering by JICA's overseas offices and preparatory surveys.

2) Request and Approval
Based on a request from the partner country, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, other related ministries and JICA discuss on whether or not to approve the project. The approved project is reported to the partner country by the Japanese government and note verbales are exchanged by diplomatic missions abroad.

3) Examination/Ex-Ante Evaluation
In order to clarify details and expected outcomes of the project and comprehensively examine the appropriateness of implementation, ex-ante evaluation is conducted based on five evaluation criteria such as relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability.

4) Project Implementation/Mid-Term Review/Terminal Evaluation
JICA and the government organization of the partner country sign a Record of Discussions (R/D) regarding project implementation, details of activities and necessary measures.
Evaluation indicators set in ex-ante evaluation are used as the basis of the mid-term review conducted at a certain point from the project inception and terminal evaluation conducted a half year prior to the project completion. Each result of evaluation is used as recommendations for improving the project.

5) Follow Up/Ex-Post Evaluation
In case unexpected problems emerge, Follow-up Cooperation is provided when necessary.
Ex-post evaluation is carried out several years after the project completion. Evaluation results are used as lessons learned for formulating and implementing similar projects.

(4) Technical Cooperation for Development Planning

In Technical Cooperation for Development Planning, JICA conducts following studies to support counterparts in the partner country to formulate policies and master plans.

Following the completion of this cooperation, the partner country is expected to 1) formulate plans for sector/regional development or rehabilitation/reconstruction by utilizing results, 2) implement plans (projects) by raising funds from international organizations and others, and/or 3) carry out the recommended organizational/institutional reforms.