The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread from the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019, and then quickly expanded its reach to the world. The international community has been working to improve global health governance and countries’ response capacity to prevent, prepare for and deal with infectious disease crises, based on past experience with outbreaks of SARS, H1N1 influenza, the Ebola virus, and other diseases. Low- and middle-income countries that are aware of their weak health systems have tended to take prompt action to implement strict behavioral restrictions, preventive measures, and mutual assistance among residents, initially keeping the spread of COVID-19 at a relatively low level. However, in addition to the direct health impact of COVID-19 infections and deaths, the prolonged implementation of strict infection control measures in response to COVID-19 had a variety of indirect and compounding negative effects, such as reduced utilization of other health services and social and economic activity, which have been observed in many countries. This has raised concerns about widening disparities in society, including health disparities. While reforms to global health mechanisms are being discussed by the international community, it is essential to grasp the actual situations in each country, which are still not sufficiently understood.
This research project consists of the following eight studies under the theme of health systems and the roles of governments and communities in preparing for future infectious disease crises. These studies work to clarify the actual conditions in countries around the world amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, and demonstrate effective measures. Through these studies, we aim to provide important suggestions for the future direction of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), for the promotion of the JICA’s Global Health and Medicine Initiative, and for the direction of Japan’s health diplomacy policy.
[Infectious Disease Research and Early Warning System]
- (1) Assessment of the Challenges and Opportunities of the WHO’s International Health Regulation 2005 and Joint External Evaluation
- (2) Situation Analysis on SARS-CoV-2 Infection Using a Seroprevalence Survey in Democratic Republic of Congo
[Infectious Disease Diagnosis and Treatment System]
- (3) Case Study of the Outbreaks of COVID-19 in Japanese hospitals
- (4) Comparative Study of Resilience of Health Care Systems
[Infectious Disease Prevention and Health Crisis Preparedness]
- (5) Examining Governance in Response to the Pandemic of COVID-19: A Case Study of Vietnam
- (6) Impact of COVID-19 Measures on the Essential Health Care Service in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
- (7) Impact of Risk Communication and Community Engagement on People's Health Behavior: In Respond to COVID-19 Pandemic
- (8) Handwashing Behavior Change: Empirical Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial in Madagascar/Tanzania